It was a race that saw Ferrari title rival Sebastian Vettel retire with engine problems.
The Mercedes driver crossed the line 1.2 seconds ahead of Red Bull's Max Verstappen, after picking up vibrations on his tyres in the dying stages of an otherwise trouble-free race.
Verstappen's Australian team-mate Daniel Ricciardo finished third.
Hamilton started on pole position and now leads Vettel, who retired on the fourth lap, by 59 points in the standings with four races remaining. He could clinch the title as early as the next U.S. Grand Prix.
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